Strategy Instruction

Second Language Strategy Instruction

The following is a list of over 400 empirical, theoretical, and review articles on L2 strategy instruction. If you are aware of additional references that are not on this list, please let me know and I will add them.

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in:
Plonsky, L. (2011). The effectiveness of second language strategy instruction: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 61, 993-1038.

Abé, D., Stanchina, C. & Smith, P. (1975). New approaches to autonomy: Two experiments in self-directed learning. Mélanges pédagogiques.Université de Nancy 2:CRAPEL.

Abraham, R. G., & Vann, R. J. (1987). Strategies of two language learners: A case study. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 85-102). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Akkakoson, S. (2013). The relationship between strategic reading instruction, student learning of L2-based reading strategies and L2
reading achievement. Journal of Research in Reading36, 422-450.

Akkakoson, S., & Sweetnam Evans, M. (2010). A reading intervention for Thai undergraduates. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 16,53-72.

Aliweh, A. M. (1989). The short- and long-term effect of communication strategy instruction on the speaking proficiency of Egyptian college students. Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York.

Allen, S. (2003). An analytic comparison of three models of reading strategy instruction. IRAL, 41, 319-338.

Amani, S. (2011, November). Metacognitive strategy instruction and planning: impact on L2 argumentative writing. Paper presented at TBLT, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Amer, A. A. (1993). Teaching EFL students to use a test-taking strategy. Language Testing, 10, 71-77.

Anderson, V. (1998). Using multiple intelligences to improve retention in foreign language vocabulary study. Unpublished master’s thesis, St. Xavier University, Chicago.

Anderson, N. J., & Vandergrift, L. (1996). Increasing metacognitive awareness in the L2 classroom by using think-aloud protocols and other verbal report formats. In R.L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 3-18). (Technical Report #13). Honolulu: Second language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii Press.

Anderson, N. J. (2005). L2 strategy research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook in second language teaching and learning (pp. 757-772). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Aninao, J. (1993). Training high school ESL students to use language-learning strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, California.

Arellano, E. M. (1991). The effects of retelling as an instructional strategy with exposition text for nonnative English speakers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Memphis State University.

*Atay, D., & Ozbulgan, C. (2007). Memory strategy instruction, contextual learning and ESP vocabulary recall. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 39-51.

Atkinson, R. S., & Raugh, M. R. (1975). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 104, 126-133.

*Avila, E., & Sadoski, M. (1996). Exploring new applications of the keyword method to acquire English vocabulary. Language Learning, 46,379–395.

*Ayaduray, J., & Jacobs, G. M. (1997). Can learner strategy instruction succeed? The case of higher order questions and elaborated responses.System, 25, 561-570.

Akyel, A., & Kamisli, S. (1996, September). Composing in first and second language: Possible effects of EFL writing instruction. Paper presented at the Balkan Conference on English Language Teaching of the International Association of Teaching of English as a Foreign Language, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aziz, L. (1995). A model of paired cognitive and metacognitive strategies: Its effect on second language grammar and writing performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Bahr, G. S., & Dansereau, D. F. (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps (BiK Maps) as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. The Journal of Experimental Education, 73, 101-118.

Baily, C. A. (1992). Getting the message across: A study of compensation strategy use in writing by adult foreign language learners using Système-D as an unobtrusive observation tool. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Baily, C. A. (1996). Unobtrusive computerized observation of compensation strategies for writing to determine the effectiveness of strategy instruction. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 141-160). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

*Barnett, M. A. (1988a). Reading through context: How real and perceived strategy use affects L2 comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 150-162.

*Barnett, M. A. (1988b). Teaching reading strategies: How methodology affects language course articulation. Foreign Language Annals, 21,109-119.

Bedell, D. (1993). Crosscultural variation in the choice of language learning strategies: A mainland Chinese investigation with comparison to previous studies. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

*Bejarano, Y., Levine, T., Olshtain, E., & Steiner, J. (1997). The skilled use of interaction strategies: Creating a framework for improved small-group communicative interaction in the language classroom. System, 25, 203-214.

Berne, J. E. (2004). Listening comprehension strategies: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals, 37, 521-533.

Biddle, M., & Malmberg, P. (Eds.). (1990). Learning to learn: Investigating learner strategies and learner autonomy: Report on workshop 2a.(Language Learner forEuropean Citizenship, Council for Cultural Cooperation). Uppsala University,Uppsala, Sweden.

Bielak, J. (2017). The effect of strategy instruction on English majors’ use of affective strategies and anxiety levels. In M. Pawlak & A. Mystkowska-Wiertelak (Eds.), Challenges of second and foreign language education in a globalized world: Studies in honor of Krystyna Droździał-Szelest (pp. 27-249). New York, NY: Springer.

Birch, G. Norris, E., & Negishi, H. (1995). The effect of explicit teaching of learning strategies on students’ reading and writing in a Japanese partial immersion program. Unpublished research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED398727)

*Bimmel, P., van den Bergh, H., & Oostdam, R. J. (2001). Effects of strategy training on reading comprehension in first and foreign language.European Journal of Psychology of Education, 16, 509–529.

Bishop, G. (2000). Developing learner strategies in the use of dictionaries as a productive language learning tool. Language Learning Journal, 22, 58-62.

Bishop, G. (2001). Using quality and accuracy ratings to quantify the value added of a dictionary skills training course. Language Learning Journal, 24, 62-69.

Brainerd, C. (1983). Varieties of strategy training in piagetian concept learning. In M. Presley & J.R. Levin (Eds.), Cognitive strategy research: Educational applications (pp. 3-27). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Brantmeier, C. (2002). Second language reading strategy research at the secondary and university levels: Variations, disparities, and generalizability. The Reading Matrix, 2, 1-14.

Brown, H. D. (1989). A practical guide to language learning: A fifteen-week program of strategies for success. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brown, H. D. (2002). Strategies for success: A practical guide for learning English. New York: Longman.

Brown, R. L. (1991). The effects of teaching a multicomponent reading strategy on university ESL students’ reading comprehension and reports of reading strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.

Brown, T. S., & Perry, F. L. (1991). A comparison of three learning strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 655-670.

*Bouvet, E., & Close, E. (2006). Online reading strategy guidance in a foreign language. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 29, 7.1-7.19.

Burgos-Kohler, N. (1991). The effect of a selected group of language learning strategies upon language development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

Bull, S., & Ma, Y. (2001). Raising learner awareness of language learning strategies in situations of limited resources. Interactive Learning Environments, 9, 171-200.

Cabaroglu, N., & Yurdaisik, A. (2008). University instructors’ views about and approaches to reading instruction and reading strategies. The Reading Matrix, 8, 133-154.

Cadierno-Lopez, T. (1992). Explicit instruction in grammar: A comparison of input based and output based instruction in second language acquisition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

*Campos, A., Amor, A., & Gonzales, M. A. (2004). The importance of the keyword-generation method in keyword mnemonics. Experimental Psychology, 51, 125-131.

Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. N., Lively, T. J., & White, C. E. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 188-215.

Carver, D. (1984). Plans, learner strategies, and self-direction in language learning. System, 12, 123-131.

*Carrell, P. L. (1985). Facilitating ESL reading by teaching text structure. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 727-752.

Carrell, P. L. (1998). Can reading strategies be successfully taught. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 1-20.

Carrell, P. L., Gajdusek, L., & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. Instructional Science, 26, 97-112.

Carrell, P. L., Pharis, B. G., & Liberto, J. C. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 647-678.

Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving high school English language learners’ second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 27, 383-408.

Casanave, C. P. (1988). Comprehension monitoring in ESL reading: A neglected essential. TESOL Quarterly, 22, 283-302.

Chaaya, D., & Ghosn, I.-K. (2010). Supporting young second language learners’ reading through guided reading and strategy instruction in a second grade classroom in Lebanon. Educational Research and Reviews, 5, 329-337.

Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 71-83). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice/Hall International.

Chamot, A. U. (1993). Student responses to learning strategies instruction in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 26,308-321.

Chamot, A. U. (1994). A model for language learning strategies in the foreign language classroom. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1994: Educational Linguistics, Cross-Cultural Communication, and Global Interdependence (pp. 323-336). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Chamot, A. U. (2001). The role of learning strategies in second language acquisition. In M. P. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning (pp. 25-43). Harlow: Pearson.

Chamot, A.U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 12-25.

Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112–130.

Chamot, A. U. (2008). Strategy instruction and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 266-281). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J. (1996). Methods for teaching learner strategies in the foreign language classroom. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 175-187). Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P. B., & Robbins, J. (1999). The learning strategies handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.

Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24.

Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1990). Learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom: Listening. McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343441)

Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1990). Learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom: Speaking. McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343439)

Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1990). A study of learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom: Second year report. McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.

Chamot, A. U., Küpper, L., Thompson, I. & Barnhardt, S. (1990). Learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom: Reading.McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343438)

Chamot, A. U., Küpper, L., Thompson, I., Barrueta, M., & Toth, S. (1990). Learning strategies in the foreign language classroom: Resource guides for listening comprehension, reading comprehension, speaking and writing. McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates.

Chamot, A. U., Küpper, L., & Toth, S. (1990). Learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom: Writing. McLean, VA: Interstate Research Associates. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343440)

Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. (1996). Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA). In R. L. Oxford (Ed.),Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 167-173). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Chamot, A. U., & Rubin, J. (1994). Comments on Janie Rees-Miller’s “A Critical appraisal of learner training: Theoretical bases and teaching implications”: Two readers react. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 771-776.

Chang, Y.-H. C. (2005). The effects of prompting on EFL college students’ use of a mapping strategy and their recall of expository texts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

Chen, A.-H. (2009). Listening strategy instruction: Exploring Taiwanese college students’ strategy development. Asian EFL Journal, 11, 54-85.

Chen, S.-Q. (1990). A study of communication strategies in interlanguage production by Chinese EFL learners. Language Learning, 40, 155-187.

Chen, Y. (2005). A qualitative study on the acquisition of listening comprehension strategies. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10,19-37.

Chen, Y. (2007). Learning to learn: The impact of strategy training. English Language Teaching Journal, 61, 20-29.

Cheung, H. (1997). The effect of vocabulary learning strategy on word translation in novice bilinguals. Psychologia, 40, 82-90.

Ching, L. C. (2002). Strategy and self-regulation instruction as contributors to improving students’ cognitive model in an ESL program.English for Specific Purposes, 21, 261-289.

Chou, Y.-L. (2004). Promoting learners’ speaking ability by socioaffective strategies. The Internet TESOL Journal, X.

*Chularut, P., & DeBacker, T. K. (2004). The influence of concept mapping on achievement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in students of English as a second language. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 248-263.

Cohen, A. D. (1987). The use of verbal and imagery mnemonics in second-language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 43-62.

Cohen, A. D. (1990). Language learning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Cohen, A. D. (1992). The role of learner strategy training in ELT methodology. In A. Wongsothorn, et al. (Eds.), Explorations and innovations in ELT methodology (pp. 174-91). Chulalongkorn University Language Institute, Bangkok, Thailand.

Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. New York: Longman.

Cohen, A. D. (1999). Language learning strategies instruction and research. In S. Cotterall & D. Crabbe (Eds.), Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang.

Cohen, A. D. (2000). Strategies-based instruction for learners of a second language. NASSP Bulletin (National Association of Secondary School Principals).

Cohen, A. D., & Aphek, E. (1980). Retention of second language vocabulary over time: Investigating the role of mnemonic associations.System, 8, 221-235.

Cohen, A. D. & Aphek, E. (1981). Easifying second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 3, 221-235.

Cohen, A. D., & Macaro, E. (Eds.). (2007). Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, A. D., Paige, R. M., Kappler, B., Demmessie, M., Weaver, S. J., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P. (2003). Maximizing study abroad: A language instructors’ guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.

Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L. (2007). Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 189-212.

Cohen, A. D., & Weaver, S. J. (1998). Strategies-based instruction for second language learners. In W. A. Renandya & G. M. Jacobs (Eds.),Learners and language learning (pp. 1-25). Anthology Series 39. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.

Cohen, A. D., & Weaver, S. J. (2004). Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teachers’ guide. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.

Cohen, A. D., Weaver, S. J., & Li, T.-Y. (1995). The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. Unpublished research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED394322)

Cohen, A. D., Weaver, S. J., & Li, T.-Y. (1996). The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. Minneapolis: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.

Cohen, A. D., Weaver, S. J., & Li, T.-Y. (1998). The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. In A. D. Cohen (Ed.),Strategies in learning and using a second language (pp. 107-156). Harlow: Longman.

Collins, C. (1991). Reading instruction that increases thinking abilities. Journal of Reading, 34, 510-516.

Collins, N. D. (1994). Metacognition and reading to learn. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED376427)

Corrales, O. (1989). At a loss for words: The use of communication strategies to convey lexical meaning. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 227-240.

Cotterall, S. (1990). Developing reading strategies through small-group interaction. RELC Journal, 21, 55-69.

Cotterall, S. (1993). Reading strategy training in second language contexts: Some caveats. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 16, 71-82.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Developing a course for strategy learner autonomy. ELT Journal, 49, 219-227.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23, 195-205.

Coyle, D. (2007). Strategic classrooms: Learning communities which nurture the development of learner strategies. Language Learning Journal, 35, 65-79.

Cresswell, A. (2000). Self-monitoring in student writing: Developing learner responsibility. ELT Journal, 54, 235-244.

Crookall, D. (1983). Learner instruction: A neglected strategy – Part 1. Modern English Teacher, 11, 31-33.

Crookall, D. (1983). Learner instruction: A neglected strategy – Part 2. Modern English Teacher, 11, 41-42.

*Cross, J. (2009). Effects of listening strategy instruction on news videotext comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 13, 151-176.

Dadour, S. (1995). The effectiveness of selected learning strategies in developing oral communication of English Department students in facilities of education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

Dadour, E. S., & Robbins, J. (1996). University-level students using strategy instruction to improve speaking ability in Egypt and Japan. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 157-166). Honolulu: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Dansereau, D. (1978). The development of a learning strategies curriculum. In H. F. O’Neil, Jr. (Ed.), Learning strategies (pp. 1-29). New York: Academic Press.

Desrochers, A., Gelinas, C., & Wieland, L. D. (1989). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of German nouns and their grammatical gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 25-32.

Desrochers, D., Wieland, L. D., & Coté, M. (1991). Instructional effects in the use of the mnemonic keyword method for learning German nouns and their grammatical gender. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 19-36.

Dickinson, L. (1992). Learner autonomy. Dublin: Authentik.

Dickinson, L. (1992). Learner autonomy 2: Learner training for language learning. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik Language Learning Resources, Ltd.

Dickinson, L. (1992). Learner training for language learning. Dublin: Authentik Language Learning Resources, Ltd.

Dickinson, L., & Carver, D. (1980). Learning how to learn: Steps toward self-direction in foreign language learning in schools. English Language Teaching Journal, 35, 1-7.

Dolean, D. D. (2014). Using the keyword method in the classroom: Is the interacting imagery necessary? System, 45, 17-26.

Donato, R., & McCormick, D. (1994). A socio-cultural perspective on language learning strategies: The role of mediation. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 453-464.

*Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 55- 85.

Dörnyei, Z., & Thurrell, S. (1991). Strategic competence and how to teach it. ELT Journal, 45, 16-23.

*Dreyer, C., & Nel, C. (2003). Teaching reading strategies and reading comprehension within a technology-enhanced learning environment.System, 31, 349-365.

Durham, J. (1999). Teaching reading strategies through think aloud techniques. ThaiTESOL Bulletin, 12, 40-45.

Dymock, S. (2007). Comprehension strategy instruction: Teaching narrative text structure awareness. The Reading Teacher, 61, 161-167.

Ederhardt, M. N. (2008). The teaching of writing and its assessment: Case studies of the effect of direct writing strategy instruction integrated with writer’s workshop on the development of young writers. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Channel Islands.

Elahi Shirvan, M. (2014). The Effectiveness of Strategy-based Instruction in Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

El-Dinary, P. (1993). Teachers learning, adapting and implementing strategies based instruction in reading. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.

El-Dinary, P., Brown, R., & Van Meter, P. (1995). Strategy instruction for improving writing. In E. Wood, V. E. Woloshyn, & T. Willoughby (Eds.),Cognitive strategy instruction for middle and high schools (pp. 88-116). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

*El-Koumy, A. S. A. (1999). Effects of three semantic mapping strategies on EFL students’ reading comprehension. Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED435193)

Ellis, G., & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: Teacher’s book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ely, C. M. (1994). Preparing second language teachers for strategy instruction: An integrated approach. Foreign Language Annals, 27, 335-342.

Evans, C. (2002). The effects of computer assisted main idea instruction on foreign language reading comprehension. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University at Albany, State University of New York.

Farrell, T. S. C. (2001). Teaching reading strategies: ‘It takes time!’ Reading in a Foreign Language, 13, 631-646.

Faucette, P. (2001). A pedagogical perspective on communication strategies: benefits of training and an analysis of English language teaching materials. Second Language Studies, 19. 1-40.

*Feyten, C. M., Flaitz, J. F., & LaRocca, M. A. (1999). Consciousness raising and strategy use. Applied Language Learning, 10, 15- 38.

Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom (Chapter 16). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Flaitz, J. F., & Feyten, C. M. (1996). A two-phase study involving consciousness raising and strategy use for foreign language learners. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learner strategies around the world: Cross cultural perspectives (pp. 211-226). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.

*Flaitz, J. F., Feyten, C. M., Fox, S., & Mukherjee, K. (1995). Raising general awareness of language learning strategies: A little bit goes a long way. Hispania, 78, 337-348

Franklin, L., Esparza Hodge, M., & Sasscer, M. F. (1997). Improving retention with strategy-based instruction. Inquiry, 1, 21-27.

Fraser, C. (1999). Lexical processing strategy use and vocabulary learning through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 225–41.

Fujiwara, B. (1990). Learner training in listening strategies. JALT Journal, 12, 203-17.

Gan, Z., Humphreys, G., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2004). Understanding successful and unsuccessful EFL students in Chinese universities. The Modern Language Journal, 88, 229-244.

Gao, X. (2010). Strategic language learning: The roles of agency and context. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Gardner, D., & Yuen, J. H. M. (2000). A survey of learner training for junior secondary school students of English in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5, 1-25.

Gaskill, P. J., & Murphy, P. K. (2004). Effects of a memory strategy on second-graders’ performance and self-efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 27–49.

Ghahari, S., & Ebrahimi, F. (2017). An intensive strategies-based program: insights for literacy and socio-emotional growth of college-level students. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2, DOI 10.1186/s40862-017-0031-1

Ghazal, L. (2007). Learning vocabulary in EFL contexts through vocabulary learning strategies. Novitas-ROYAL, 1, 84-91.

*Gladwin, R. F. & Stepp-Greany, J. (2008). An interactive, instructor-supported reading approach vs. traditional reading instruction in Spanish.Foreign Language Annals, 41, 687-701.

Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development: Theory, practice,and research implications. RELC Journal, 39, 188-213.

Goh, C. C. M., & Foong, K.P. (1997). Chinese ESL students’ learning strategies: A look at frequency, proficiency, and gender. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2, 39-53.

Goh, C. C. M., & Taib, Y. (2006). Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners. ELT Journal, 60, 222-232.

Graham, S. (1997). Effective language learning: Positive strategies for advanced level language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

*Graham, S. (2007). Learner strategies and self-efficacy: Making the connection. Language Learning Journal, 35, 81-93

*Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower-intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58, 747-783.

Graham, S., Santos, D., & Vanderplank, R. (2008). Listening comprehension and strategy use: A longitudinal exploration. System, 36, 52-68.

Grala, M., Oxford, R. L., & Schleppegrell, M. (1987). Improving your language learning: Strategies for Peace Corps volunteers. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Grenfell, M. (2007). Language learner strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning. Language Learning Journal, 35,9-22.

Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (1999). Modern languages and learning strategies: In theory and practice. New York: Routledge.

Griffiths, C. (2007). Language learning strategies: Students’ and teachers’ perceptions. ELT Journal, 61, 91-99.

Griffiths, C.  (Ed.) (2008). Lessons from good language learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Griffiths, C., & Parr, J. M. (2001). Language-learning strategies: Theory and perception. English Language Teaching Journal, 55, 247-254.

Gu, P. Y. (1996). Robin Hood in SLA: What has the learning strategy researcher taught us? Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 6, 1–29.

Gunning, P. (2011). ESL strategy use and instruction at the elementary school level: A mixed methods investigation. Unpublished PhD thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Hagaman, J. L., & Reid, R. (2008). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of middle school students at risk for failure in reading. Remedial and Special Education, 29, 222-234.

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