* denotes studies that examine language-specific grit (i.e., “L2 Grit”).

Download Teimouri et al.’s (in press) L2 Grit Scale (English Version)
Download Teimouri_et al.’s (in press) L2 Grit Scale (Farsi Version)

Download Sudina_et al.’s (in press) L2 Teacher Grit Scale

Banse, H., & Palacios, N. (2018). Supportive classrooms for Latino English language learners: Grit, ELL status, and the classroom context. The Journal of Educational Research, 111, 645-656. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2017.1389686

Changlek, A., & Palanukulwong, T. (2015). Motivation and grit: Predictors of language learning achievement. Veridian E-Journal, 8, 23-38.

*Ebadi, S., Weisi, H., & Khaksar, Z. (2018). Developing an Iranian ELT context-specific grit instrument. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 47, 975-997.

Feng, L., & Papi, M. (in press). Persistence in language learning: The role of grit and future self-guides. Learning and Individual Differences.

*Giordano, M. J. (2019). Grit and intrinsic motivation for language learning: Instrument validation using the Rasch model. Shiken, 23, 38-42.

Gyamfi, G., & Lai, Y. (2020). Beyond motivation: Investigating Thai English major students’ grit. PASAA, 60, 60-96.

Keegan, K. (2017). Identifying and building grit in language learners. English Teaching Forum, 55, 2-9.

Khajavy, G. H., MacIntyre, P., Hariri, J. (in press). A closer look at grit and language mindset as
predictors of foreign language achievement. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.

Kramer, B., McLean, S., & Martin, E. S. (2017). Student grittiness: A pilot study investigating scholarly persistence in EFL classrooms. Retrieved from http://ir-

Lake, J. (2013). Positive L2 self: Linking positive psychology with L2 motivation. In M. T. Apple, D. Da Silva, & T. Fellner (Eds.), Language learning motivation in Japan (pp. 225-244). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Lake, J. (2015). Positive psychology and second language motivation: Empirically validating a model of positive L2 self. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Temple University.

Lee, J. S. (in press). The role of grit and classroom enjoyment in EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. DOI:10.1080/01434632.2020.1746319

Lee, J. S., & Hsieh, J. C. (2019). Affective variables and willingness to communicate of EFL learners in in-class, out-of-class, and digital contexts. System, 82, 63-73.

Lee, J. S., & Lee, K. (in press). Affective factors, virtual intercultural experiences, and L2 willingness to communicate in in-class, out-of-class, and digital settings. Language Teaching Research.

O’Neal, C. R. (2018). Individual versus peer grit: Influence on later individual literacy achievement of dual language learners. School Psychology Quarterly, 33, 112–119.

O’Neal, C. R., Goldthrite, A., Weston Riley, L., & Atapattu, R. K. (2018). A reciprocal, moderated mediation model of grit, engagement, and literacy achievement among dual language learners. Social Development, 27, 665–680.

Robins, S. (2019). Academic Achievement and retention among ESL learners: A study of grit in an online context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of West Georgia, Carrolton, GA.

*Sudina, E., Brown, J., Datzman, B., Oki, Y., Song, K., Cavanaugh, R., Thiruchelvam, B., & Plonsky, L. (in press). Language-specific grit: Exploring psychometric properties, predictive validity, and differences across contexts. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. doi=10.1080/17501229.2020.1802468

*Sudina, E., & Plonsky, L. (under review). Academic perseverance in foreign language learning: An investigation of language-specific grit and its conceptual correlates. Manuscript under review.

*Sudina, E., & Plonsky, L. (in press). Language learning grit, achievement, and anxiety among L2 and L3 learners in Russia. ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics.

*Sudina, E., Vernon, T., Foster, H., del Villano, H., Hernandez, S., Beck, D., & Plonsky, L. (in press). Development and initial validation of the L2-teacher grit scale. TESOL Quarterly. DOI:10.1002/tesq.581

Taşpinar, K., & Külekçi, G. (2018). GRIT: An Essential Ingredient of Success in the EFL Classroom. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching, 6, 208-226.

*Teimouri, Y., Plonsky, L., & Tabandeh, F. (in press). L2 Grit: Passion and perseverance for second-language learning. Language Teaching Research.

Wei, H., Gao, K., & Wang, W. (2019). Understanding the relationship between grit and foreign language performance among middle schools students: The roles of foreign language enjoyment and classroom Environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1508. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01508

Wei, R., Liu, H., & Wang, S. (in press). Exploring L2 grit in the Chinese EFL context. System.

Yamashita, T. (2018). Grit and second language acquisition: Can passion and perseverance predict performance in Japanese language learning? Unpublished MA thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.